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换热器、热交换器专用防腐涂料研究论述

换热器(heat exchanger),是将热流体的部分热量传递给冷流体的设备,又称热交换器。换热器是化工、石油、动力、食品及其它许多工业部门的通用设备,在生产中占有重要地位。在化工生产中换热器可作为加热器、冷却器、冷凝器、蒸发器和再沸器等,应用更加广泛。换热器种类很多,但根据冷、热流体热量交换的原理和方式基本上可分三大类即:间壁式、混合式和蓄热式。北京志盛威华化工工程师长期现场施工经验了解,换热器大部分应用在高温、有腐蚀的(PH偏高或是偏低)环境中,腐蚀结构现象非常严重。换热设备利用率的高低直接影响到炼油工艺的效率以及成本的费用问题。据统计换热器在化工建设中约占投资的1/5。因此,换热器的利用率及寿命是值得研究的重要问题。由换热器的损坏原因来看,腐蚀是一个十分重要的原因,而且换热器的腐蚀是大量的普遍存在的,能够解决好腐蚀问题,就等于解决了换热器损坏的根本。

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1、应力腐蚀、换热器、热交换器产生应力腐蚀必须具备特定的腐蚀环境和足够大的拉伸应力。Cl- 是造成应力腐蚀的另一个主要因素。Cl- 半径小,穿透力极强,很容易穿透保护膜内极小的孔隙,破坏局部钝化膜而进入裂缝尖端生成HCl,产生自加速催化加速腐蚀过程,同时H 在尖端析出,渗入裂缝前缘,可使金属脆化[ 2 ]。温度是引起应力腐蚀破裂的重要因素。温度愈高时引起腐蚀的Cl- 浓度越低,也就愈易发生应力腐蚀破裂。

2、电化学腐蚀、换热器、热交换器电化学腐蚀是最为广泛的一种金属的腐蚀。当冷却水系统内部的金属长期处于水溶液中或潮湿的大气中,金属表面会形成一种微电池,也称腐蚀电池。阳极上发生氧化反应,使阳极发生溶解,阴极上发生还原反应。使得冷却水系统内金属腐蚀不断进行,进而威胁到系统的安全运行。

3、化学腐蚀欧冠热门、换热器、热交换器化学腐蚀中温度对化学腐蚀影响甚大。钢铁在干燥空气中不易腐蚀,但在高温下易被氧化生成氧化皮,其渗碳体易发生脱碳反应,使钢铁的表面强度和疲劳极限降低。

4、生物腐蚀、换热器、热交换器生物腐蚀主要是与冷却水系统的循环水等介质接触的金属表面上易引起生物腐蚀。生物腐蚀的原因是由于生物体会以有机缓蚀剂为食物,生物代谢产生酸,破坏金属耐腐蚀保护层,生物新陈代谢耗氧,造成金属表面O2 浓度不均而引起氧浓差腐蚀。

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欧冠热门TAIZHOUSHIHONGYINGJIXIE  maoyi24.com

发布时间:2016-06-06
 
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